Category Archives: Medical News

iAfricanna Inc, hoax or a daggafarian’s hope?

A company referring to itself as a cannabis incubator have compiled a dagga-grow permit kit and is inviting everyone to apply to grow legal dagga.

In a e-mail leaked to the Dagga Magazine from a source close to iAfricanna, a new incorporation established by the Salute Empowerment Forum, Zubenathi PTY ltd, Mazangani Solutions, Agricultural Research Centre, CSIR and House of Hemp, compiled a dagga-growing permit application kit and has invited anyone with fenced land and the will to grow dagga to attend a free workshop on how to apply for a permit to grow cannabis or hemp in 2017.

Permit Readiness Invite by iAfricanna

Hoax or hope?

The cultivation of dagga for commercial purposes is still highly illegal in South Africa, although the law may soon change upon the outcome of the Cape Town High Court judgement to change the Drug & Trafficking Act of 1992 to accommodate the personal cultivation, possession and use of dagga it will have no impact on the commercialisation of legal dagga.

While the promise of a dagga revolution is noble, and a goal every daggafarian must strive towards, there is currently no way to legally grow dagga.

We did not get correspondence from House of Hemp in time for publication on the legitimacy of the e-mail sent by Daluxolo Kunene.

Hoax or hope for daggafarians? You decide. Share your thoughts on our Facebook page or in the comment section below.

iAfricanna Dagga Grow Permit Application Kit

#DaggaOps Environmental Impact Assessment

Finally after months our struggle for information has yielded success.

The South African Police Service forwarded a copy of the #DaggaOps Environmental Impact Assessment to the Dagga Magazine after a successful Promotion to Access to Information application.

We have only had time to skim through the 3 part report however the perspective dagga is viewed by the government is very grim.

View the #DaggaOps EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) at your own peril as it will even bring down the highest and happiest of daggafarians.

More to follow soon.

Link to #DaggaOps Environmental Impact Assessment: http://dagga.za.net/u/?i=5

Roundtable #DaggaDebate on #MedicalDagga

A two day conference in South Africa discussing the use of medicinal cannabis took place in Johannesburg.

8 hour audio recording of the conference.

Part 1
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4WJojoiFSszdEk2OFZnbXk1WlE/view?hc_location=ufi

Part 2
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4WJojoiFSszdVZXOVJXcDNKMDQ/view?hc_location=ufi

Part 3
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4WJojoiFSszRFI1dVdoakl0cGs/view?hc_location=ufi

Part 4
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4WJojoiFSszbHBLeE84SXh2N2c/view?hc_location=ufi

Part 5
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4WJojoiFSszd0RRM2lxeTJJMWc/view?hc_location=ufi

Wellness Warehouse Answers

Recently we asked Wellness Warehouse some concerning questions regarding the product they sell as CBD Hemp Oil.

DM: What are the ingredients used in Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil and does your product contain Cannabidiol?

WW: The CBD Hemp oil is supplied by Coyne Healthcare this is not a Wellness Warehouse product, contact with Coyne Healthcare can be made directly via info@coynehealthcare.co.za . It is available through various outlets and medical practitioners. The ingredients are stated on the packaging of the product. These are grape seed oil, vanilla bean extract and CBD. Sunflower oil is also present making up less than 1% of the product and this will be omitted in future production.

DM: Does Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil contain any genetically modified organisms or any other form of genetically modified ingredients?

WW: To the best of our knowledge no GMO additives have been included in the production of the product. This will be verified with the supplier.

DM: Is Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil an extract from the flowers of hemp or seeds?

WW: Seed and Stalk

DM: If Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil contains the cannabinoid Cannabidiol how much of the cannabinoid is present in the product?

WW: 100mg per 15ml

DM: If Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil contains the cannabinoid Cannabidiol how did your company manage to get past the red tape to be able to sell cannabinoids deemed illegal by the March 2014 amendments of the Drug & Trafficking Act of 1992?

WW: For more information on this please contact info@coynehealthcare.co.za

DM: Is Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil sourced and manufactured in South Africa?

WW: The product is produced in the US.

DM: Have Wellness Warehouse externally tested the terpene profile of the CBD Hemp Oil? If so what were the results?

WW: Wellness Warehouse cannot independently test every product supplied to it by its suppliers. For further information contact info@coynehealthcare.co.za

DM: Can the canabanoids in the oil be independently verified? If so, would Wellness Warehouse object to an independent analysis of the product?

WW: Yes they have best independently tested. The COA is available. The product supplies pure CBD with 0% THC.

DM: At R66.60 per ml Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil is out of reach for many people, why is this product so expensive?

WW: The product is produced in the US (paid for in US dollars) and shipped to South Africa. Due to the South African regulations specific small batches are produced to comply with South African requirements. Pure isolated CBD is an expensive ingredient and this can be verified by searching online and reviewing various suppliers of CBD based products.

DM: Are you aware that the effects of CBD are enhanced/potentiated by using it in conjunction with other cannabinoids including THC? This makes whole plant extracts far more therapeutically valuable than isolated cannabinoids.

WW: There are a number of studies based on isolated CBD. One can argue both ways and at this point there is no conclusive evidence proving one is better than the other. Whilst THC certainly has benefits it is illegal and also produces psychotropic effects which many people cannot tolerate long term when used therapeutically. Consider people who need to work , study, children or are tested for drugs.

DM: A reader brought this to our attention: “The information on the Wellness Warehouse website is misleading – They explain studies show CBD therapy can achieve some amazing results – however the information is shared in such a way as to convince the reader that one could expect these results from their product. These healing results are generally not achieved through dosing with products created from Hemp CBD; diluted into base oil, but rather achieved through dosing with full plant extract with a high CBD ratio.” Could you comment on this statement?

WW: This is not true. There are a number of CBD specific studies where pure isolated CBD is used. The article advises readers to do further research by visiting www.projectcbd.org .

Refer to the following studies as examples of isolated CBD. There are many others…

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16612464

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22506672

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117398

DM: Is Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil safe to use on cancer patients and what is the success rate?

WW: There is no reason to believe there would be any negative interaction in cancer patients or any person using the product in the recommended form as per the instructions. It is however recommended that a person dealing with cancer or any form of a medical condition consults with a medical professional before starting with any new form of supplementation

Wellness Warehouse Fail To Answer Questions On Its CBD Hemp Oil

Recently the dagga community was abuzz regarding the CBD (Cannabidiol) Hemp Oil sold by Wellness Warehouse however the excitement was short lived as it quickly became apparent that this product is not the same as Phoenix Tears also known as Rick Simpson oil, which is a full extract of the flowers of the cannabis plant, nor was it even a close resemblance to an extract of the famous Charlotte’s Web high CBD strain sought after by parents who’s children are suffering from epileptic seizures.

Members of the South African dagga culture posted their concerns of the product sold by Wellness Warehouse as CBD oil soon after it went viral among the community.

“How can you sell a product that supposedly has healing CBD in but
yet also contains sunflower oil which is GMO & toxic?”

“Even the hemp plant contains a small percentage of THC.”

“It’s made from the Seeds not the plant thats why it doesnt have any trace of D9-THC.”

“Then its useless. Simple!”

We contacted Wellness Warehouse on Twitter and after a delay they responded and asked us to send questions we have regarding the product to the Managing Director of Wellness Warehouse “who would gladly answer any questions” we may have regarding the product.

We then compiled a few question from our readers and sent through our questionare.

A few days later Wellness Warehouse responded by asking if the answers will appear in the magazine to which we replied yes.

Another few days passed and this is the response received from Wellness Warehouse:

“As this isn’t an own brand product we feel this would better be directed to our supplier as a feature. They would be more than happy to answer your questions, I’m sure. If that works for you, I’ll forward your questions to him. Please let me know. Thanks – Wellness Warehouse”

We have since lodged a complaint with the Advertising Standards Authority of South Africa.

The Wellness Warehouse website lists that the CBD Hemp Oil contains hemp oil, grape seed oil, sunflower oil, vanilla bean, vegetable glycerin emulsifier.

Further more the website says:

Cannabidiol CBD is a natural constituent of hemp oil. Cannabidiol
(CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of industrial hemp/
cannabis. It is the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis. CBD is extracted and separated from specific varieties of cannabis, often known as hemp. Chemically, CBD is one of 85 chemical substances known as cannabinoids, which are all found in the cannabis plant. CBD has come into the spot light due to its potential benefits across a spectrum of conditions such as
psychiatric conditions, neuropathic pain, epilepsy and certain types
of cancer.

The is a large amount of preclinical evidence and studies on CBD
with large scale clinical trials underway.It is important to note that
CBD cannot make one high or intoxicated and that to date there are no documented studies that show undesirable effects.Our oil is produced in a facility in the US and has specifically been produced to comply with South African regulations. CBD is extracted from industrial hemp and then combined with organic grape seed oil. The result of which provides us with a pure CBD oil which has a 0.0001% concentration of THC and is a food supplement. It is also legal in South Africa as it complies with all of the regulatory requirements.

The unanswered questions:

  • What are the ingredients used in Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil and does your product contain Cannabidiol?
  • Does Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil contain any genetically modified organisms or any other form of genetically modified ingredients?
  • Is Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil an extract from the flowers of hemp or seeds?
  • If Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil contains the cannabinoid Cannabidiol how much of the cannabinoid is present in the product?
  • If Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil contains the cannabinoid Cannabidiol how did your company manage to get past the red tape to be able to sell cannabinoids deemed illegal by the March 2014 amendments of the Drug & Trafficking Act of 1992?
  • Is Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil sourced and manufactured in South Africa?
  • Have Wellness Warehouse externally tested the terpene profile of the CBD Hemp Oil? If so what were the results?
  • Can the canabanoids in the oil be independently verified? If so, would Wellness Warehouse object to an independent analysis of the product?
  • At R66.60 per ml Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil is out of reach for many people, why is this product so expensive?
  • Are you aware that the effects of CBD are enhanced/potentiated by using it in conjunction with other cannabinoids including THC? This makes whole plant extracts far more therapeutically valuable than isolated cannabinoids.
  • A reader brought this to our attention: “The information on the Wellness Warehouse website is misleading – They explain studies show CBD therapy can achieve some amazing results – however the information is shared in such a way as to convince the reader that one could expect these results from their product. These healing results are generally not achieved through dosing with products created from Hemp CBD; diluted into base oil, but rather achieved through dosing with full plant extract with a high CBD ratio.” Could you comment on this statement?
  • Is Wellness Warehouse CBD Hemp Oil safe to use on cancer patients and what is the success rate?

#DaggaOps: Our Struggle For Access To Information

After our 5th request for a copy of the #DaggaOps Environment Impact Assessment from the South African Police Service failed we decided it’s time for more drastic legal measures.

In February 2015 a Facebook post of a picture of three Dagga Ops helicopters used in the spraying of dagga crops in the Transkei with glyphosate went viral we felt obligated to ask the South African Police Service a few questions.

The response we received on the 17th of February 2015 from SAPS spokesperson Solomon Makgale:

Good afternoon editor of Dagga Magazine,

Apologies for the delayed response. Your media enquiry on the subject matter dated 2 February 2015 refers.

Kindly receive the response to your enquiry as follows

Question 1: Was an environmental impact study conducted on the harms to the ecosystem and people by routine dagga crops spraying by helicopters?

ANSWER: Yes. A study was conducted in conjunction with SANAB, a file of the study can be made available if required.

Question 2: What chemicals are used by the SAPS Air Wing Dagga Ops to spray dagga crops?

ANSWER: The SAPS Air Wing uses a chemical called Kilo Max which is a glyphosate herbicide family. All precautions as contained in the “instructional pamphlet” are adhered to by members. Kilo Max has been scientifically and biologically proven to be non-toxic to ecosystem and humans. This was also confirmed by the study conducted by Dr Paul Kojo Mensa on the study titled “ Environmental Water quality Management of Glyphosate-based Herbicides in South Africa ,2012. The study was conducted in the Swartkops River (Eastern Cape area), it revealed that using a Glyphosate based herbicides (which Kilo Max is) had a negligible (if not at all) impact on the physicochemical and biological conditions. Therefore allegations that the chemical has a negative impact on the ecosystem and humans is baseless.

Further, all pilots involved in dagga spraying are trained, qualified and certified by both Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and Civil Aviation Authority ( SACAA). They are registered with the DAFF and qualified to spray  Crops. They have a SACAA Rating on Crop Spraying.

Question 3: Who signed off on the authorisation of Dagga OPS?

ANSWER: The Ops was approved by the Component Head: Operational Mobilisation and Support Services as part of the SAPS Drug  Eradication Master Plan. It is an annual Dagga spray operation conducted by the Air Wing and it is contained in the SAPS Section  Annual Performance Plan 2014/15.

Then the struggle for information begun

We took up the offer presented by SAPS spokesperson Solomon Makgale and requested that he supply us with a copy of the SANAB Dagga Ops Environment Impact Assessment.

After our initial request was left unanswered we sent a second request for access to the assessment in which we also asked if the South African Police could recite any law that exempts them the from laws prohibiting destruction of property via air spraying without an arrest or physical proof of dagga.

The response we received was very disappointing as it did not contain the environment impact assessment.

Solomon Makgale’s response: “I believe that we have responded to all your questions. There is nothing new to add.”

By the 2nd of March we have sent our 5th request to receive a copy of the document as was offered in our email conversation with the SAPS spokesperson.

On the 3rd of March we decided that it is time to apply for access to information as afforded by the Promotion of Access to Information Act.

A J750 PAIA was filled in and sent off to the Department of Justice who then directed it to the attention of Information Officer at the South African Police Service.

The SAPS information Officer speedily notified us that the request has been received and that it may take up to 30 days to deliver upon the request and that a fee will definitely apply as stipulated in the fees section of the Promotion of Information Act.

Now we eagerly await the deadline which is around the middle of April, just in time for 4.20 D-Day.

The reason why the Environment Impact Assessment is so important is because without the backing of the assessment the it could mean that the South African Police Service have been conducting illegal dagga spray operations for the past 15 years.

Edit: After the article was published, yesterday, on the 17th of March we received confirmation that our application for access to the Dagga Ops Environment Impact Assessment was successful.

They have sent us the Notice of Request Fee and we must now pay R35 to receive the information.

2015-03-18 13.24.47

Expect more info soon.

Editor

Granny Storm Crow’s List 2015

“We have preliminary data showing that for certain medical conditions and symptoms that marijuana can be helpful, so I think we have to use that data to drive policy making”. Those are the words of the US Surgeon General, Dr. Vivek Murthy. Not ‘may be helpful’, CAN be helpful! Our nation’s top doctor has quite publicly recognized that cannabis does have real medical uses! The age of ‘no recognized medical use’ has passed! Our laws ‘merely’ need to catch up with this ‘new medical reality’! (Are you registered to vote?) There have been several exciting studies published recently, but one that really stands out is “Effect of Marijuana Use on Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury”. It’s a very small study, fewer than 500 people, but the results are so dramatic that it is very hard to ignore them! Apparently even recreational use of cannabis may greatly increase the odds of surviving a brain trauma! In a nutshell, the mortality rate for non-users was 11.5%, while cannabis users had a rate of 2.4%! But it’s a small study and they need to repeat it with larger numbers! Yet, since it is a statistical study based on data that is normally collected in trauma cases, namely, drug testing and mortality rates in head trauma, it should be simple to duplicate this study to confirm it! A second important study is “Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated With Brain Morphometric Measures In Adolescents Or Adults” which shows that after taking into account certain factors overlooked by previous studies (alcohol use, age, gender, etc.,) there is no ‘brain shrinkage’. And the remarkable safety of cannabis was once again confirmed in “Comparative Risk Assessment of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis and Other Illicit Drugs Using the Margin of Exposure Approach”. Of all the drugs that they compared, only cannabis was considered ‘low risk’.

Studies are coming out at such a rate that I have created a new section for the 2000 to 2009 studies. The first section now contains only the most recent studies, those from 2010 to 2015. The ‘2000 to 2009’ studies, the ‘old Pre-2000 studies’ and the mini-dictionary make up the second section. Although these studies are older, there is a lot of good information here! You might triple space the mini-dictionary and print it up, so you could write in any new terms you find. The large ‘Endocannabinoid System 2010 – 2015’ category begins the third section, followed by the much smaller ‘Endocannabinoid Genetics’. Next comes the ‘Phytocannabinoids’ which has blossomed into a category in its own right, and finally, the
‘Synthetic Cannabinoids and Compounds That Affect the
Endocannabinoid System’.

Share the List! Our government has lied to us for decades about this healing herb. It is time for the truth! There is so much more to cannabis than just the ‘high’! Once the medical facts become known, the need for full legalization becomes obvious! And as my grandfather once said, “If the truth won’t do, then something is
wrong!”

Granny

Source

History Of Dagga Use Associated With Reduced Cancer Risk – Study

Dagga use is inversely associated with incidences of bladder cancer in males, according to epidemiological findings published in the February issue of the journal Urology.

Investigators at the Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Department of Neurology assessed the association of dagga use and tobacco smoking on the risk of bladder cancer in a multiethnic cohort of more than 80,000 men aged 45 to 69 years old over an 11-year period.

Researchers determined that a history of dagga use was associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer. By contrast, tobacco use was associated with an increased risk of cancer.

“After adjusting for age, race or ethnicity, and body mass index, using tobacco only was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (hazard regression 1.52) whereas dagga use was only associated with a 45 percent reduction in bladder cancer incidence (HR 0.55),” investigators reported.

Subjects who reported using both tobacco and dagga possessed a decreased risk of cancer (HR 1.28) compared to those subjects who used tobacco only (HR 1.52).

The study is the first to indicate that dagga use may be inversely associated with bladder cancer risk

Authors concluded:

“In this multiethnic cohort of 82,050 men, we found that dagga use alone was associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer. … Men who used tobacco alone were 1.5 times more likely to develop bladder cancer when compared with men who did not use tobacco or dagga. … However, among men who used both substances, this risk of bladder cancer was mitigated. … If this represents a cause and effect relationship, this pathway may provide new opportunities for the prevention and/or treatment of bladder cancer.”

In 2009, Brown University researchers similarly reported that the moderate long-term use of dagga was associated with a reduced risk of head and neck cancers in a multi-center cohort involving over 1,000 subjects. Investigators further reported that dagga use “modified the interaction between alcohol and cigarette smoking, resulting in a decreased HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma) risk among moderate smokers and light drinkers, and attenuated risk among the heaviest smokers and drinkers.”

Read the abstract of the study, “Association between dagga use and the risk of bladder cancer: Results from the California Men’s Health Survey,” online here.

By Paul Armentano, NORML Deputy Director

Woman 51 arrested for 2L Medical Dagga Oil & 170 Plants

Donee Kathleen Schmidt was arrested in December after police allegedly found 120 dagga plants and processed dagga oil on her premises. Schmidt is currently out on bail of five-hundred-rand.

Early last month the Hawks in Gauteng arrested 51-year-old Donee Schmidt at her home in Germiston, East of Johannesburg, for allegedly cultivating and dealing in dagga.

On entering the house, the Hawks found 120 dagga plants, including 50 mother plants growing indoors, while some were planted in the garden. The Hawks also seized 2L of processed medical dagga oil.

The woman is believed to be part of a enterprise dealing in medical dagga.

Sources

SABC News

Woman in court after drug den found

Hawks uncovers another hydrophonic dagga-cultivating facility in Gauteng

Feature Image: Unrelated dagga bust

What is clinical endocannabinoid deficiency?

Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CEDC) is a proposed spectrum disorder that has been implicated in a range of illnesses, including fibromyalgia, migraine and irritable bowel syndrome. So far, very little research has been conducted on this speculative disorder, but if it is found to exist, it could be responsible for these very common conditions as well as many related ones.

Migraine, serotonin and the blood plasma platelets

The three conditions feature common clinical and biochemical patterns that may point to underlying CEDC. Migraine is thought to be influenced by endocannabinoid function, as areas suspected to be involved with generation of migraines are also affected by cannabinoid activity; furthermore, the endocannabinoid anandamide, with its role in pain modulation and serotonin transmission, is believed to positively affect sufferers of the condition.

The biochemistry of migraine is highly complex and poorly understood, but it known that high levels of serotonin are present during attacks. THC and its endogenous ligand, anandamide, have been shown to inhibit serotonin in high doses (although low doses may increase its production), particularly in the platelets of the blood plasma. The platelets contain the body’s highest reserves of serotonin, which is also present in the ENS as well as throughout the brain. Serotonin release from the platelets is thought to be crucial to generation of migraines, and migraine is often thought to be a disease of the blood on this basis.

Fibromyalgia and serotonin deficiency

Fibromyalgia, a pain disorder which is widely considered to be neuropsychiatric in nature, is treated with cannabis in approximately 10% of patients in the USA (either through self-medication or prescription), and has been shown to respond favourably to the synthetic THC-mimic nabilone. In a study which documented the effect of nabilone on fibromyalgia sufferers, subjects experienced significant improvement of symptoms when administered the cannabinoid. Another study demonstrated that quality of life was markedly improved in fibromyalgia sufferers that self-administered oral or smoked cannabis.

Serotonin levels in the platelets are also known to be affected in fibromyalgia, although it is thought that deficiency of serotonin, rather than over-abundance, is responsible for the sufferer’s aberrant perception of pain. This disparity is not fully understood, and is somewhat surprising given the high degree of comorbidity between the diseases: in one study, up to 63% of primary fibromyalgia sufferers also reported symptoms of migraine, in another, 22.2% of primary migraine sufferers were also found to have fibromyalgia. This disparity may be partly explained by gender differences, as none of the male migraine sufferers reported symptoms of fibromyalgia, and the latter disease is overwhelmingly experienced by women, who comprise 90% of sufferers.

IBS and the link between the brain and gut

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastroenteric condition that presents as bloating, abdominal cramps and diarrhoea. It is long been suspected that there is a link between IBS and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, as the condition is often comorbid with psychiatric conditions such as anxiety, depression and PTSD; acute symptoms often arise in times of mental distress. However, as endocannabinoids are expressed in the enteric nervous system (ENS), as well as the areas of the brain affected by such psychiatric disorders, their effect may be independent.

Serotonin also plays a part in IBS, influencing gut motility (the peristaltic actions of the colon, which become “spastic” or uncontrolled during bouts of IBS), sensitivity and secretion of fluid. Interestingly, IBS-D (characterised by diarrhoea) sufferers have been shown to have increased blood serotonin levels, while sufferers of IBS-C (characterised by constipation) experience reduced levels of serotonin.

Cannabinoid receptors in the enteric nervous system

It has been demonstrated that activation of the cannabinoid receptors in the ENS decreases hypersensitivity of the gut, as well as reducing gut motility  and inflammation. Many sufferers of IBS use cannabis to alleviate their symptoms, although some report that symptoms worsened subsequent to commencing use; some even postulate cannabis as a trigger for IBS in certain individuals.

The overlap between instances of these conditions has led to the hypothesis that they are all expressions of the same underlying somatic disorder. Many sufferers of IBS also report symptoms of migraine, and up to 70% of fibromyalgia sufferers also present IBS symptoms. Many have all three, but it is not strictly necessary for all three to be present for an underlying condition to be the cause, as many spectrum disorders manifest markedly different symptoms from patient to patient, and other related conditions may be involved.

Is an underlying condition responsible?

The idea that a dysfunctional endocannabinoid system is responsible for this postulated somatic disorder first arose within the last few years. In 2004, the condition CECD was first proposed; researchers suggested that the high degree of comorbidity, along with the common feature of unusual cannabinoid receptor activity, pointed to an underlying disorder of the endocannabinoid system. Many known conditions can be attributed to dysfunction of a specific neurotransmitter system: Alzheimer’s is caused by deficiency of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter, and Parkinson’s by age-related dopamine deficiency. It is therefore logical to assume that deficiency of the cannabinoid neurotransmitters would also cause a specific disorder, or set of related disorders.

The relationship with the serotonin signalling system cannot be ignored when researching the possibility of CECD’s existence. Behavioural studies suggest that the effects of endocannabinoid signalling are mediated by regulation of the serotonin system: THC has been shown to inhibit serotonin release from the platelets in migraine sufferers, as well asincreasing synthesis of serotonin in the brain; 2-AG and cannabidiol have demonstrated similar effects. However, the independent effects of cannabinoids on the cannabinoid receptors are thought to be the underlying cause of CECD, despite this possibly fundamental relationship with serotonin signalling.

If the existence of CECD is proven, targeted therapies can be investigated, which would pinpoint the precise nature of the deficiency and determine the appropriate ration and dosage of supplemental exogenous cannabinoids. At present, treatment of these conditions is usually through ingestion of crude cannabis extract, or through smoking, which may involve wildly different cannabinoid ratios between cannabis strains. Due to the dose-dependent effect of many cannabinoids, relief of symptoms may not be adequate with some varieties.

Article first appeared on Sensiseeds.com
Other source MedicalJane.com